Depression (mood), a state of low mood and aversion to activity. Mood disorders characterized by depression are commonly referred to as simply depression, including: Major depressive disorder. Depression (kinesiology), an anatomical term of motion, refers to downward movement, the opposite of elevation. Depression (physiology), a reduction in a. . In the United States, the lifetime prevalence of depression is from 15% to 20%. Women are more commonly affected. Suicide is a major complication of depression and a leading cause of death in the United States. Worldwide, major depressive disorder (MDD) is the leading cause of years lived with.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation is also an alternative treatment for a major depressive episode. It is a noninvasive treatment that is easily tolerated and shows an antidepressant effect, especially in more typical depression and younger adults. More than 17 million U.S. adults—over 7% of the population—had at least one major depressive episode in the past year. People of all ages and all racial, ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds experience depression, but it does affect some groups more than others. Symptoms. Depression can present different symptoms, depending on the person Depression can be short-term, lasting for just a couple of weeks, or long-term, lasting for years. It is normal to feel sad, lonely, or hopeless sometimes, such as after you experience a loss or during a time in your life when you are struggling. However, sometimes these normal feelings of sadness. A depresszió, hivatalosan súlyos depressziós zavar (major depressive disorder, MDD), amit több, mint két hétig tartó, a legtöbb szituációban fennálló lehangoltság jellemez. Többnyire társul hozzá az önbizalom hiánya, lelkesedés elvesztése a betegség előtt örömöt nyújtott tevékenységekben, kevés lelkesedés és egyértelmű ok nélküli fájdalom The cause of a major depressive episode is not well understood. However, the mechanism is believed to be a combination of biological, psychological, and social factors. A major depressive episode can often follow an acute stress in someone's life. Evidence suggests that psychosocial stressors play a larger role in the first 1-2 depressive episodes, while having less influence in later episodes. People who experience a major depressive episode often have other mental health issues.
The current subtyping of depression is based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) categorical division of bipolar and depressive disorders.Current evidence, however, supports a dimensional approach to depression, as a continuum/spectrum of overlapping disorders, ranging from bipolar I depression to major depressive disorder . Use these strategies to manage the symptoms of depression, promote positive thinking, alleviate stress, and boost your self-esteem
Learn the early warning signs and symptoms of smiling depression immediately Although opioids have known antidepressant activity, their use in major depressive disorder (MDD) has been greatly limited by risk of abuse and addiction. Our aim was to determine whether opioid modulation achieved through a combination of a μ -opioid partial agonist, buprenorphine (BUP), and a potent μ -opioid antagonist, samidorphan (SAM. The diagnosis of Dysthymic Disorder can be made following Major Depressive Disorder only if the Dysthymic Disorder was established prior to the first Major Depressive Episode (i.e., no Major Depressive Episodes during the first 2 years of dysthymic symptoms), or if there has been a full remission of the Major Depressive Episode (i.e., lasting. The Major Depression Inventory (MDI) is a self-report mood questionnaire developed by the World Health Organization.The instrument was constructed by a team led by Professor Per Bech, a psychiatrist based at Frederiksborg General Hospital in Denmark. The MDI differs from many other self-report inventories, such as the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), because it is able to generate an ICD-10 or. The Great Depression is commonly used as an example of how intensely the global economy can decline. The Great Depression started in the United States after a major fall in stock prices that began around September 4, 1929, and became worldwide news with the stock market crash of October 29, 1929, (known as Black Tuesday)
The symptoms of depression (major depressive disorder) are characterized by an overwhelming feeling of sadness, isolation & despair. Learn more about depression symptoms, signs, resources, and. Depression Diagnosis To diagnose depression, your health care provider will ask you questions about your symptoms and family history. You may be asked to fill out a questionnaire about your symptoms The criteria below are based on the formal DSM-V criteria for a major depressive episode. A diagnosis of major depressive episode requires that the patient has experienced five or more of the symptoms below, and one of the symptoms must be either depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure (although both are frequently present). These symptoms must be present for at least 2 weeks and represent a change from the patient's normal behavior. Depression eller depressionssyndrom är en psykisk sjukdom som, med psykiatrisk terminologi, ingår i de affektiva störningarna.Depressionerna kan klassificeras i någon av flera undergrupper. Vid depression finns en förhöjd risk för självmord.Den behandling som har störst effekt är metakognitiv terapi  som i en studie behandlat behandlingsresistent depression framgångsrikt på 6,5.
Although depression can take on many forms and may be categorized in several different ways, there are two primary types of clinical depression as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5): major depressive disorder (unipolar depression) and the depressive phase of bipolar disorder Depression with psychosis, or psychotic depression, happens when someone with major depression also experiences psychosis. This is a serious mental health condition that needs medical attention.
Dysthymia, also known as persistent depressive disorder (PDD), is a mood disorder consisting of the same cognitive and physical problems as depression, but with longer-lasting symptoms. The concept was coined by Robert Spitzer as a replacement for the term depressive personality in the late 1970s A depressive episode can last from a few weeks to several months. When bipolar disorder develops at a young age, the first few episodes are usually depressive. Because a manic or hypomanic episode is needed to diagnose bipolar disorder, some people are diagnosed with major depression at first. Diagnosi Minor depressive disorder: episodes of at least 2 weeks of depressive symptoms but with fewer than the five items required for Major Depressive Disorder. Recurrent brief depressive disorder: depressive episodes lasting from 2 days up to 2 weeks, occurring at least once a month for 12 months (not associated with the menstrual cycle) Are you depressed? Take our scientific depression test to find out in just 2 minutes if you suffer from the symptoms associated with depression. Instant results, no registration required
For major depressive episodes of severe intensity (multiple symptoms, minimal mood reactivity, severe functional impairment), combined psychotherapy and antidepressant medications are more effective than psychotherapy alone. Meta-analyses suggest that the combination of psychotherapy and antidepressant medications is more effective in treating mild and moderate forms of depression as well, compared to either type of treatment alone. Patients with severe symptoms may require outpatient treatment or hospitalization. Major depressive disorder is a mood disorder that interferes with daily life. Learn about symptoms, causes, and treatment Major depressive disorder (MDD), an aa kent simply as depression, is a mental disorder chairacterised bi at least twa weeks o law muid that is present athort maist situations. It is eften accompanied bi law self-esteem , loss o interest in normally enjoyable activities, law energy, an pyne withoot a clear cause
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations. It is often accompanied by low self-esteem, loss of interest in normally enjoyable activities, low energy, and pain without a clear cause. Those affected may also occasionally have false beliefs or see or hear things that. Unlike major depression, the disorder is caused by an outside stressor and generally resolves once the individual is able to adapt to the situation. The condition is different from anxiety disorder , which lacks the presence of a stressor, or post-traumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder , which usually are associated with a more. Depression is a complex disease. WebMD explains what research has discovered about the causes of depression - from genetics to illnesses and medications to major life events unipolar depression: [ de-presh´un ] 1. a hollow or depressed area. 2. a lowering or decrease of functional activity. 3. in psychiatry, a mental state of altered mood characterized by feelings of sadness, despair, and discouragement; distinguished from grief, which is realistic and proportionate to a personal loss. Profound depression may be. Sigmund Freud used to refer to depression as anger turned inward. While many people may regard this as an overly simplistic approach to the most common mental health disorder in the world, there.
major depression: [ de-presh´un ] 1. a hollow or depressed area. 2. a lowering or decrease of functional activity. 3. in psychiatry, a mental state of altered mood characterized by feelings of sadness, despair, and discouragement; distinguished from grief, which is realistic and proportionate to a personal loss. Profound depression may be an. An overview of statistics for major depression. Major depression is one of the most common mental disorders in the United States. For some individuals, major depression can result in severe impairments that interfere with or limit one's ability to carry out major life activities Depression is a mood condition characterized by persistent and overwhelming feelings of sadness that can affect your day-to-day activities and how you think, feel, and behave. Sometimes it can affect your outlook on life and make you feel that life isn't worth living. Depression may also be called major depressive disorder or clinical depression A major depressive episode is a period of two weeks or longer in which a person experiences certain symptoms of major depression: feelings of sadness and hopelessness, fatigue, weight gain or weight loss, changes in sleeping habits, loss of interest in activities, or thoughts of suicide Can be applied to the current or most recent Major Depressive Episode in Major Depressive Disorder and to a Major Depressive Episode in Bipolar I or II Disorder only if it is the most recent type of mood episode. Full criteria for a Major Depressive Episode have been met continuously for at least the past 2 years. Differential Diagnosi
Maintaining Relationships When You Have Depression. Depression symptoms aren't just hard on the depressed person. They can take a toll on all the people in his or her life Severe (major) depression is classified as having the symptoms of mild to moderate depression, but the symptoms are severe and noticeable, even to your loved ones. Episodes of major depression. Major depressive disorder has significant potential morbidity and mortality, contributing as it does to suicide, incidence and adverse outcomes of medical illness, disruption in interpersonal. Depression (major depressive disorder or clinical depression) is a common but serious mood disorder. It causes severe symptoms that affect how you feel, think, and handle daily activities, such as sleeping, eating, or working. To be diagnosed with depression, the symptoms must be present for at least two weeks
Clinical depression is a serious mental disorder that causes persistent feelings of sadness and loss of interest that interfere with daily life. If you feel you relate to our video, there is help Adolescent or teenage depression is a mental and emotional disorder. Symptoms in teens are different than in adults. Read about the differences and treatments There are a number of different psychotherapies for depression, which may be provided to individuals or groups. Psychotherapy can be delivered by a variety of mental health professionals, including psychotherapists, psychiatrists, psychologists, clinical social workers, counselors, and psychiatric nurses. With more complex and chronic forms of depression the most effective treatment is often.
major depressive episode: [ ep´ĭ-sōd ] a single noteworthy happening in the course of a longer series of events, such as one critical period of several during a prolonged illness. hypomanic episode a period of elevated, expansive, or irritable mood similar to a manic episode but not as severe; see also bipolar disorders and mood disorders .. Clinical depression means you are depressed at the clinical level - meaning you have a mental health diagnosis. There are quite a few diagnoses that include clinical depressive symptoms including: Major Depressive Disorder, Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder, Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthymia), and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder Major or clinical depression is a serious but treatable illness. Depending on the severity of symptoms, your primary care doctor or a psychiatrist may recommend treatment with an antidepressant. In major depression, feelings of worthlessness and self-loathing are common. For some people, the death of a loved one can bring on major depression. Losing a job or being a victim of a physical assault or a major disaster can lead to depression for some people. When grief and depression co-exist, the grief is more severe and lasts longer than.
Some of the main forms of psychotherapies used for treatment of a major depressive episode along with what makes them unique are included below: A major depressive episode (MDE) is a period characterized by the symptoms of major depressive disorder.Sufferers primarily have a depressed mood for two weeks or more, and a loss of interest or pleasure in everyday activities, accompanied by other symptoms such as feelings of emptiness, hopelessness, anxiety, worthlessness, guilt and irritability, changes in appetite, problems concentrating. Depression and Pregnancy. Depressive symptoms are prevalent during pregnancy. About 13% of pregnant women will experience a major depressive episode, which means that about half a million women in the United States will be affected each year .The guidelines review the data regarding the following specific pregnancy-related events and depression: miscarriage, growth restriction, and preterm. Major depressive disorder is defined by the DSM as having one or more major depressive episodes which is a period of two weeks or more where a person has either depressed mood (can be irritable in children) or the loss of interest or pleasure in nearly all activities and may also have the following symptoms (at least 5 or more) nearly every day: depressed (or irritable for children) mood by a. 12 Surprising Facts About Depression. At first glance, major depression may seem black and white. But people with depression know that it's more complex than you think
Media in category Major depressive disorder The following 3 files are in this category, out of 3 total. A woman suffering from Clinical Depression.png 2,605 × 1,667; 1.01 M Prognosis Edit File:SuicideRates.PNG. Major depressive episodes often resolve over time whether they are treated or not. Outpatients on a waiting list show a 10-15% reduction in symptoms over a few months, and around 20% will no longer meet full criteria. The median duration of an episode has been estimated at least 23 weeks, with the highest rate of recovery in the first three months
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) with Peripartum Onset (also known as postpartum depression) is different than a temporary mood disturbance after childbirth. Up to 6% of women will experience a major depressive episode during pregnancy or in the first year following delivery. It is also estimated that 50% of all MDD episodes actually begin prior. DSM-5 Criteria: Major Depressive Disorder Major Depressive Episode: F Five (or more) of the following symptoms have been present during the same 2-week period and represent a change from previous functioning; at least one of the symptoms is either (1) depressed mood or (2) loss of interest or pleasure Health topics / Technical links Today I talk about what Major Depressive Disorder is and how it is diagnosed. The DSM states that you must have depressed mood and anhedonia in order for MDD to even be considered How to Prevent Depression. Depression is a common mental disorder that affects over 121 million people in the world. It is listed among the top causes of disability across the globe, but the good news for those who may suffer from it is..
Pages with broken file links. Eye color; Rorschach test; Classical conditioning; Oral sex; Journal This is a list of notable people who have, or have had, major depressive disorder.A number of well-known people have had the disorder. While depression was sometimes seen as a shameful secret until the 1970s, society has since begun discussing depression more openly Dysthymia, sometimes referred to as mild, chronic depression, is less severe and has fewer symptoms than major depression. With dysthymia, the depression symptoms can linger for a long period of. Major depressive disorder (MDD) is an episodic mood disorder primarily characterized by depressed mood and anhedonia lasting for at least 2 weeks.Women have a higher risk of developing MDD than men. The peak age of onset is the 3 rd decade.The etiology is multifactorial, including both biological and psychological factors major depressive disorder a mood disorder characterized by the occurrence of one or more major depressive epsiodes and the absence of any history of manic, mixed, or hypomanic episodes. major depressive disorder 1. Synonym(s): major depression 2. a DSM diagnosis that is established when the specified criteria are met. major depressive disorder or major.
Main article: Clinical depression This article considers the epidemiology of depression amongst adults for other age groups see: . Main article: Depression - Epidemiology in children Main article: Depression - Epidemiology in older adults Depression is the most common mental disorder in community settings, and is a major cause of disability across the world Estimates of the numbers of people suffering from major depressive episodes and major depressive disorder (MDD) vary significantly. Overall, 13-20% of people will experience significant depressive symptoms at some point in their life. The overall prevalence of MDD is slightly lower ranging from 3.7-6.7% of people. In their lifetime, 20% to 25% of women, and 7% to 12% of men will suffer a major depressive episode. The peak period of development is between the ages of 25 and 44 years. Onset of major depressive episodes or MDD often occurs to people in their mid-20s, and less often to those over 65. The prevalence of depressive symptoms in the elderly is around 1-2%. Elderly persons in nursing homes may have increased rates, up to 15-25%. African-Americans have higher rates of depressive symptoms compared to other races. Prepubescent girls are affected at a slightly higher rate than prepubescent boys. Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity. It can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, motivation, feelings, and sense of well-being.It may feature sadness, difficulty in thinking and concentration and a significant increase or decrease in appetite and time spent sleeping Both MS and major depression can make it difficult for you to do the things you need to do each day. You may feel too unfocused, weak, or in pain to take care of all the things you need to. Creating a routine and sticking to it can help you treat your depression and possibly help you manage your MS, as well. [6
Depression, in psychology, a mood or emotional state marked by feelings of low self-worth or guilt and a reduced ability to enjoy life. Depression differs from simple grief or mourning and can be classified into different types. Learn more about the causes, symptoms, types, and treatments for depression Major depression is also known as major depressive disorder, classic depression, or unipolar depression.It's fairly common — about 16.2 million adults in the U.S. have experienced at least one.
A few such types of depression are major depression (also known as clinical depression), dysthymia, bipolar disorder, seasonal affective disorder and adjustment disorder with depressed mood. Knowing the differences can enable parents understanding when seeking treatment for their teen The link between neuroinflammation and major depression is evidenced by the fact that a number of clinical conditions which create significant neuroinflammation in the brain (e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus, traumatic brain injury and multiple sclerosis) are associated with high prevalence rates for major depression [240,241] The category Depressive disorder not otherwise specified is diagnosed if the depressive episode's manifestation does not meet the criteria for a major depressive episode. The ICD-10 system does not use the term Major depressive disorder , but lists similar criteria for the diagnosis of a depressive episode (mild, moderate or severe); the term.
Description Major depressive disorder is a serious mental disorder that profoundly affects an individual's quality of life. Unlike normal bereavement or an occasional episode of the blues, MDD causes a lengthy period of gloom and hopelessness, and may rob the sufferer of the ability to take pleasure in activities or relationships that were previously enjoyable Interpersonal therapy (IPT) is a time-limited treatment for major depressive disorder. It aims at reducing or eliminating depressive symptoms by improving the quality of the patient's current interpersonal relations and social functioning. Discussing Medications: What You Need to Know. Use these guidelines to talk to your health care. Postpartum depression, which affects some women upon giving birth; and; Bipolar disorder, with the current mood depressed (as opposed to manic or hypomanic). An individual who is experiencing a major depressive disorder will experience five or more of the below symptoms for at least two weeks: Sleep pattern changes, including early morning.
Die Depression (lateinisch depressio von lateinisch deprimere niederdrücken) ist eine psychische Störung bzw. Erkrankung. Typische Symptome einer Depression sind gedrückte Stimmung, Grübeln und ein verminderter Antrieb.Häufig gehen Freude und Lustempfinden, Selbstwertgefühl, Leistungsfähigkeit, Einfühlungsvermögen und das Interesse am Leben verloren Below are listed the main classes of antidepressant medications, some of the most common drugs in each category, and their major side effects: Major depression is a serious disorder of enormous sociological and clinical relevance. The discovery of antidepressant drugs in the 1950s led to the first biochemical hypothesis of depression, which suggested that an impairment in central monoaminergic function was the major lesion underlying the disorder Major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder are the two major mood disorders. For more information on the symptoms of mania abd bipolar disorder, see the links at the bottom of this page. Most people with major depression do not have close relatives with bipolar disorder, but the relatives of people with bipolar disorder are at. In most people, depression, even major depression, is a very treatable disorder, Walch says. There is a wide range of medications and therapies that have been proven to work. Specifically.
Major depression, also called clinical depression, is a wellness issue marked by a constant sense of hopelessness and despair. With major depression, it may be difficult to work, study, sleep, eat. Even enjoying friends and activities may become challenging. Some people have major depression only once in their life, while others have it several. Since the descriptor for F32.9 reads major depressive disorder that is a flag on their end. All we are getting is depression from the provider, or they have recently been writing mild depression thinking that we could use F32.8, but that would still be coded as F32.9 unless they wanted to change it to unhappiness A person going through a major depressive episode may have repeated thoughts about death (other than the fear of dying) or suicide (with or without a plan), or may have made a suicide attempt. The frequency and intensity of thoughts about suicide can range from believing that friends and family would be better off if one were dead, to frequent thoughts about committing suicide (generally related to wishing to stop the emotional pain), to detailed plans about how the suicide would be carried out. Those who are more severely suicidal may have made specific plans and decided upon a day and location for the suicide attempt. Treatments for a major depressive episode include psychotherapy and antidepressants, although in more serious cases, hospitalization or intensive outpatient treatment may be required. According to the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI), an estimated 20 percent of people who have major depression also have psychotic symptoms.This combination is known as depressive psychosi
Sometimes, people stop taking antidepressant medications due to side effects, although side effects often become less severe over time. Suddenly stopping treatment or missing several doses may cause withdrawal-like symptoms. Some studies have shown that antidepressants may increase short-term suicidal thoughts or actions, especially in children, adolescents, and young adults. However, antidepressants are more likely to reduce a person's risk of suicide in the long run. Severity is a term that is used to describe how significant an event such as a mood episode has affected someone.. Severity specifiers in the DSM Edit. The DSM uses three levels of severity to describe the following mood episodes: . Major depressive episode; Manic episode; Mixed episode; This specifier is not used for Hypomanic episodes, most likely because they are usually milder than each of. Major depression with postpartum onset, or postpartum depression, is diagnosed if a woman develops a major depressive episode during pregnancy or within four weeks after delivery. It is estimated.
Major depressive disorder, including major depressive episode, underwent very few changes from DSM-IV to DSM-5. Major depressive disorder is characterized by discrete episodes of at least 2 weeks' duration (although most episodes last considerably longer) with at least one of two symptoms, either depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure. If left untreated, a typical major depressive episode may last for about six months. About 20% of these episodes can last two years or more. About half of depressive episodes end spontaneously. However, even after the major depressive episode is over, 20% to 30% of patients have residual symptoms, which can be distressing and associated with disability. Fifty percent of people will have another major depressive episode after the first. However, the risk of relapse is decreased by taking antidepressant medications for more than 6 months. Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations. It is often accompanied by low self-esteem, loss of interest in normally enjoyable activities, low energy, and pain without a clear cause. People may also occasionally have false beliefs or see or hear things that others. According to a 2018 report, fatigue affects over 90 percent of people with major depressive disorder. In this article, learn about the link between depression and fatigue, as well as how to cope
Even some people with major depression-the classic, episodic type that causes low mood or loss of interest or pleasure, among other symptoms-may be deemed high-functioning Depression (also called major depressive disorder, unipolar depression or clinical depression) is a mental illness. Many people think that depression just means a person is very sad. However, depression can cause many symptoms in the body as well as mood problems. The ICD-10 is used around the world to diagnose people with illnesses like. Prevalence Edit. Major depressive disorder affects approximately 6.7% (15 million) of the US population aged 18 and older in a given year. It is the leading cause of disability in the United States for individuals aged 15 to 44 (Kessler, 2005; World Health Organization, 2004) Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a mental illness defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). The DSM provides the diagnostic criteria used by doctors for major depressive disorder (MDD) and all mental disorder diagnoses Nearly every day, others may see that the person's activity level is not normal. People suffering from depression may be overly active (psychomotor agitation) or be very lethargic (psychomotor retardation). Psychomotor agitation is marked by an increase in body activity which may result in restlessness, an inability to sit still, pacing, hand wringing, or fidgeting with clothes or objects. Psychomotor retardation results in a decrease in body activity or thinking. In this case, a depressed person may demonstrate a slowing of thinking, speaking, or body movement. They may speak more softly or say less than usual. To meet diagnostic criteria, changes in motor activity must be so abnormal that it can be observed by others. Personal reports of feeling restless or feeling slow do not count towards the diagnostic criteria.
See a doctor or psychiatrist. The first step towards curing major depressive disorder is to receive a definite diagnosis. Many people who suffer 'Italic text'from depression are reluctant to seek help, but it is important to be aware that depression is a condition that rarely goes away on its own.Therefore, seeking medical and psychiatric attention is the first step on the path to recovery Search for Major Depressive Disorder. Whatever You Need, Whatever You Want, Whatever You Desire, We Provide
Psychotherapy may be the first treatment used for mild to moderate depression, especially when psychosocial stressors are playing a large role. Psychotherapy alone may not be as effective for more severe forms of depression. Misdiagnosis is an inaccurate or incomplete diagnosis of a person's condition. Misdiagnosis of psychological disorders Medical errors occur in the treatment of mental illness. Sufferers of dissociative identity disorder usually have psychiatric histories that contain three or more separate mental disorders and previous treatment failures. The disbelief of some doctors around the validity. Major depressive disorder involves a consistently depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in normal activities for a period of at least two weeks. Variations of major depression, such as seasonal affective disorder and postpartum depression, may have specific causes and may involve slightly different treatments, such as light therapy for. Major Depression. In Major Depression occurring in children, the diagnosis Separation Anxiety Disorder should also be made when the criteria are met for both disorders, since it is difficult to know which condition should be regarded as the primary disorder. Conduct Disorde This is a complete list of clinically approved prescription antidepressants throughout the world, as well as clinically approved prescription drugs used to augment antidepressants, by pharmacological and/or structural classification. Chemical/generic names are listed first, with brand names in parentheses. All drugs listed are approved specifically for major depressive disorder unless noted.