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1945–1952: the "Green Border"edit

The East German government sought to defuse the situation by relaxing the country's border controls with effect from 10 November 1989;[168] the announcement was made on the evening of 9 November 1989 by Politbüro member Günter Schabowski at a somewhat chaotic press conference in East Berlin, who proclaimed the new control regime as liberating the people from a situation of psychological pressure by legalising and simplifying migration. Misunderstanding the note passed to him about the decision to open the border, he announced the border would be opened "immediately, without delay", rather than from the following day as the government had intended. Crucially, it was neither meant to be an uncontrolled opening nor to apply to East Germans wishing to visit the West as tourists.[168] At an interview in English after the press conference, Schabowski told the NBC reporter Tom Brokaw that "it is no question of tourism. It is a permission of leaving the GDR [permanently]."[169] The Bundesgrenzschutz (BGS / Federal Border Guard) was the first national-level armed service established in West Germany after WWII. It utilized a number of WWII items during the Cold War. Ddr Autos, Berlin Geschichte, Olympische Spiele, Kalter Krieg, Gestern Und Heute, Historische Bilder, Berliner Mauer, Alte Bilder The two German governments promoted very different views of the border. The GDR saw it as the international frontier of a sovereign state – a defensive rampart against Western aggression.[47] In Grenzer ("Border Guard"), a 1981 East German Army propaganda film, NATO and West German troops and tanks were depicted as ruthless militarists advancing towards East Germany. Border troops interviewed in the film described what they saw as the rightfulness of their cause and the threat of Western agents, spies and provocateurs. Their colleagues killed on the border were hailed as heroes and schoolchildren in East Berlin were depicted saluting their memorial.[48] The inner German border originated from plans by the Allies of World War II to divide a defeated Germany into occupation zones. Their boundaries were drawn along the territorial boundaries of 19th-century German states and provinces that had largely disappeared with the unification of Germany in 1871. Three zones were agreed on, each covering roughly a third of Germany: a British zone in the.

From 1945 onwards, unauthorised crossers of the inner German border risked being shot by Soviet or East German guards. The use of deadly force was termed the Schießbefehl ("order to fire" or "command to shoot"). It was formally in force as early as 1948, when regulations concerning the use of firearms on the border were promulgated. A regulation issued to East German police on 27 May 1952 stipulated that "failure to obey the orders of the Border Patrol will be met by the use of arms". From the 1960s through to the end of the 1980s, the border guards were given daily verbal orders (Vergatterung) to "track down, arrest or annihilate violators". The GDR formally codified its regulations on the use of deadly force in March 1982, when the State Border Law mandated that firearms were to be used as the "maximum measure in the use of force" against individuals who "publicly attempt to break through the state border".[145] The border was also patrolled in the British sector by the British Frontier Service, the smallest of the Western border surveillance organisations. Its personnel served as a liaison between British military and political interests and the German agencies on the border.[92] The BFS was disbanded in 1991 following Germany's reunification.[93] What you have here is a mixture of Grenztuppen (DDR) and Vopo (Volkspolizei) shoulder boards. In DDR Grenztruppen were part of the army, unlike in the West, were they are a separate entity such as police. Therefore, as you will see on the attached picture, only lining was different from the other Waffenfarbe EC-135T.1 D-HVBI c/n 0177 Bundesgrenzschutz (German Police). 50 jahre Bundesgrenzschutz open-house, Bonn-Hangelar, 22-05-2005. seit 20 Jahren eingelagertes sowjetisches Denkmal aus dem Zentrum von N. (DDR), 2015 / Советский мемориал из центр Нойштрелица, 20 лет в хранилище by photosuche

Bundesgrenzschutz Die Innerdeutsche Grenze Der Eiserne Vorhan

  1. The Bundesgrenzschutz (BGS / Federal Border Guard) was the first national-level armed service established in West Germany after WWII. It utilized a number of WWII items during the Cold War. (New BGS troopers take their service oath in 1963.) (BGS border troopers disembark from UH-1 Iroquois helicopters in 1976. The combination of stahlhelm helmets an
  2. Bundesgrenzschutz camera: Luppa, on the trail of Atlantis camera: Obeng Japan Children from China back in d. home origin: Asahi news funicular on Mount Vesuvius origin: SEDI first streets Schienenomnibus in the Bavarian Forest children's Zoo in Vancouver origin: Metro the ball of the century in Biarritz origin: Gaumont sports five fighters in.
  3. The division of Germany was put into effect on 1 July 1945. Because of their unexpectedly rapid advances through central Germany in the final weeks of the war, British and American troops occupied large areas that had been assigned to the Soviet zone of occupation. The redeployment of Western troops prompted many Germans to flee to the West to escape the Soviet takeover of the remainder of the Soviet zone.[10]
  4. There was no formal legal basis under which a citizen could emigrate from East Germany. In 1975, however, East Germany signed up to the Helsinki Accords, a pan-European treaty to improve relations between the countries of Europe.[118] An increasing number of East German citizens sought to use the Accords' provision on freedom of movement to secure exit visas. By the late 1980s, over 100,000 applications for visas were being submitted annually with around 15,000–25,000 being granted.[119][120]
  5. On the far side of the Sperrzone was the signal fence (Signalzaun), a continuous expanded metal fence 1,185 kilometres (736 mi) long and 2 metres (6.6 ft) high. The fence was lined with low-voltage electrified strands of barbed wire. When the wire was touched or cut, an alarm was activated to alert nearby guards.[59]
  6. East Germany - DDR . About / Contact. Links. Home. West Germany - BRD. Bundesgrenzschutz. BGS Hats . BGS Beret 1 Bundesgrenzschutz Beret #1 Bundesgrenzschutz Beret / BGS Barett. This BGS Beret is from Moosgrün (moss green) era.
  7. All results related to * found on 80 scale modeling websites and the scalemates kit database

The GDR's government nonetheless remained opposed to emigration and sought to dissuade would-be émigrés. The process of applying for an exit permit was deliberately made slow, demeaning, frustrating and often fruitless. Applicants were marginalised, demoted or sacked from their jobs, excluded from universities and subjected to ostracism.[121] They faced the threat of having their children taken into state custody on the grounds that they were unfit to bring up children.[122] The law was used to punish those who continued to apply for emigration; over 10,000 applicants were arrested by the Stasi between the 1970s and 1989.[123] The opening of the border had a profound political and psychological effect on the East German public. For many people, the very existence of the GDR, which the SED had justified as the first "Socialist state on German soil", came to be seen as pointless. The state was bankrupt, the economy was collapsing, the political class was discredited, the governing institutions were in chaos and the people were demoralised by the evaporation of the collective assumptions that had underpinned their society for 40 years. Membership of the Party collapsed and Krenz himself resigned on 6 December 1989 after only 50 days in office, handing over to the moderate Hans Modrow.[179] The removal of restrictions on travel prompted hundreds of thousands of East Germans to migrate to the West – more than 116,000 did so between 9 November and 31 December 1989, compared with 40,000 for the whole of the previous year.[180] Der alte Bundesgrenzschutz has 4,857 members. Kontakte zu alten BGS Kameraden aufnehmen und Erinnerungen austauschen 1951 - 200

Historische DDR-Überbleibsel in Oerlenbach Teil 3 - YouTub

BUNDESGRENZSCHUTZ (D) FORUM DDR GRENZE (D) PALBA (CZ) POGRANEC (RU) VOJENSKO (CZ) Doporučený článek: TAKOVÝ BYL TONDA FIRÝT. Dostávám se opět k tomu,abych zavzpomínal na doby mé služby u pohraniční roty Trojmezí. Tentokrát bych si dovolil věnovat svoji vzpomínku.. Media in category Bundesgrenzschutz Duderstadt The following 4 files are in this category, out of 4 total. Bundesarchiv Bild 183-20860-0163, Zwinge, Getreideernte mit Mähdrescher, Hafer.jpg 800 × 534; 69 K Německá demokratická republika (NDR, Východní Německo, v německy mluvících zemích i jinde běžně DDR, zkratka pro Deutsche Demokratische Republik) byl stát, který existoval mezi lety 1949 až 1990 v období během studené války, kdy byla východní část Německa součástí východního bloku.Obyčejně byl na západě popisovaný jako komunistický stát, ale sám sebe.

1952–1967: the "special regime"edit

There was little informal contact between the two sides; East German guards were under orders not to speak to Westerners.[97] After the initiation of détente between East and West Germany in the 1970s, the two sides established procedures for maintaining formal contacts through 14 direct telephone connections or Grenzinformationspunkte (GIP, "border information points"). They were used to resolve local problems affecting the border, such as floods, forest fires or stray animals.[98] The traffic was not one-way; thousands of people migrated each year from West Germany to the east, motivated by reasons such as marital problems, family estrangement and homesickness.[141] A number of Allied military personnel, including British, French, German and American troops, also defected.[142] By the end of the Cold War, as many as 300 United States citizens were thought to have defected across the Iron Curtain for a variety of reasons[143] – whether to escape criminal charges, for political reasons or because (as the St. Petersburg Times put it) "girl-hungry GIs [were tempted] with seductive sirens, who usually desert the love-lorn soldier once he is across the border". The fate of such defectors varied considerably. Some were sent straight to labour camps on charges of espionage. Others committed suicide, while a few were able to find wives and work on the eastern side of the border.[144] 1 June 1990 saw the elimination of border patrols and control of persons at the Inner-German border.[1] Escapees used a variety of methods. The great majority crossed on foot, though some took more unusual routes. One of the most spectacular was the balloon escape in September 1979 of eight people from two families in a home-made hot-air balloon. Their flight involved an ascent to more than 2,500 metres (8,200 ft) before landing near the West German town of Naila.[135] The incident inspired the film Night Crossing.

Bundesgrenzschutz Dokumentarfilm - 20 jahre bgs - YouTub

  1. A high wall and watchtowers divided the village of Mödlareuth in Bavaria/Thuringia. A stretch of the wall still stands as a memorial to the division of Germany.
  2. Mass escapes were rare. One of the few that succeeded took place on 2 October 1961, when 53 people from the border village of Böseckendorf – a quarter of the village's population – escaped en masse, followed by another 13 inhabitants in February 1963.[139] An unusual mass escape occurred in September 1964 when 14 East Germans, including 11 children, were smuggled across the border in a refrigerated truck. They were able to escape detection by being concealed under the carcasses of slaughtered pigs being transported to the West.[140]
  3. The BT-9 (Beobachtungsturm-9), a 9 m (30 ft)-high observation tower introduced in the mid-1970s as a more stable replacement for the BT-11
  4. Originaler älterer. Polizei BRD- alt od.Bundesgrenzschutz. Polizei von Bund und Ländern. Hallo Sammler. Kragen aus Filzstoff. Be Ka Regenbekleidung. 2 Seitentaschen. Auf Materialermüdungen habe ich keinen Einfluß- kein Rückgabegrund
  5. A military rank structure similar to that of the Bundeswehr was replaced in the mid-1970s by civil service-type personnel grades. The service uniform was green, but field units did wear camouflage fatigues and, at times, steel helmets. The West German Railway Police (Bahnpolizei), formerly an independent force, and the East German Transportpolizei were restructured under the BGS in 1990 when the railway was on the way to privatization. The reason that the Länder police forces are not competent for the railway that the (formerly federally-run) railway remains a federal competency.

1967–1989: the "modern frontier"edit

Bell 212 Bundesgrenzschutz / Bundespolizei DF-Helo stuff: 1 : 48 DF20248: € 8.22 EU: incl. tax € 9.95: Bell 212 Bundesgrenzschutz / Bundespolizei DF-Helo stuff: 1 : 72 DF20272: € 5.74 EU: incl. tax € 6.95: Bell 212 Bundesgrenzschutz / Bundespolizei DF Helo Stuff: 1 : 35 DF20235: € 12.36 EU: incl. tax € 14.95: Bolkow Bo105C. Twenty-five East German border guards died after being shot from the Western side of the border or were killed by resisting escapees or (often accidentally) by their own colleagues.[153] The East German government described them as "victims of armed assaults and imperialist provocations against the state border of the GDR"[154] and alleged that "bandits" in the West took potshots at guards doing their duty – a version of events that was uncorroborated by Western accounts of border incidents. The guards of the inner German border comprised tens of thousands of military, paramilitary and civilian personnel from both East and West Germany, as well as from the United Kingdom, the United States and initially the Soviet Union.

East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik [ˈdɔʏtʃə demoˈkʁaːtɪʃə ʁepuˈbliːk], DDR), was a state that existed from 1949 to 1990, the period when the eastern portion of Germany was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War.Commonly described as a communist state in English usage, it described itself as a socialist. It was formally established on 1 July 1945 as the boundary between the Western and Soviet occupation zones of former Nazi Germany. On the eastern side, it was made one of the world's most heavily fortified frontiers, defined by a continuous line of high metal fences and walls, barbed wire, alarms, anti-vehicle ditches, watchtowers, automatic booby traps, and minefields. It was patrolled by 50,000 armed East German guards who faced tens of thousands of West German, British, and US guards and soldiers.[1] In the hinterlands behind the border were more than a million North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) and Warsaw Pact troops. In 1988, the East German leadership considered proposals to replace the expensive and intrusive fortifications with a high-technology system codenamed Grenze 2000. Drawing on technology used by the Soviet Army during the Soviet–Afghan War, it would have replaced the fences with sensors and detectors. However, the plan was never implemented.[39][40] The taboo in East Germany surrounding escapees meant that the great majority of deaths went unpublicised and uncommemorated. However, the deaths of border guards were used for GDR propaganda, which portrayed them as "martyrs". Four stone memorials were erected in East Berlin to mark their deaths.[156] The regime named schools, barracks and other public facilities after the dead guards and used their memorials as places of pilgrimage to signify that (as a slogan put it) "their deaths are our commitment" to maintaining the border. After 1989 the memorials were vandalised, neglected and ultimately removed.[157] The small pro-democracy Monday demonstrations soon swelled into crowds of hundreds of thousands of people in cities across East Germany. The East German leadership considered using force but ultimately backed down, lacking support from the Soviet Union for a violent Tiananmen Square-style military intervention.[165] Reformist members of the East German Politbüro sought to rescue the situation by forcing the resignation of the hardline Party chairman Erich Honecker, replacing him in October 1989 with the marginally less hardline Egon Krenz.[166]

The border could be crossed legally only through a limited number of air, road, rail and river routes. Foreigners were able to cross East German territory to or from West Berlin, Denmark, Sweden, Poland and Czechoslovakia. However, they had only limited and very tightly controlled access to the rest of East Germany and faced numerous restrictions on travel, accommodation and expenditure.[102] Lengthy inspections caused long delays to traffic at the crossing points.[103] Westerners found crossing the inner German border to be a somewhat disturbing experience; Jan Morris wrote: The closure of the border had a substantial economic and social impact on both halves of Germany. Cross-border transport links were largely severed; 10 main railway lines, 24 secondary lines, 23 autobahns or national roads, 140 regional roads and thousands of smaller roads, paths and waterways were blocked or otherwise interrupted. The tightest level of closure came in 1966, by which time only six railway lines, three autobahns, one regional road and two waterways were left open. When relations between the two states eased in the 1970s, the GDR agreed to open more crossing points in exchange for economic assistance. Telephone and mail communications operated throughout the Cold War, although packages and letters were routinely opened and telephone calls were monitored by the East German secret police.[7] Insignia of the Bundesgrenzschutz (Federal Border Protection) and Landespolizei (State Police) of West Germany. One of the most famous units of the Bundesgrenzschutz is GSG 9 der Bundesgrenzschutz (Special Unit 9 of the BGS) an elite counter-terrorism unit which won world attention when it freed eighty six hostages from a hijacked Lufthansa flight in Mogadishu, Somalia in 1977 25.08.2018 - Erkunde perogo45s Pinnwand Bundesgrenzschutz auf Pinterest. Weitere Ideen zu Küstenwache, Deutsche uniformen und Wehrmacht uniform

Gründung des Bundesgrenzschutz BGS 1951 3/3 - YouTub

Kuriositäten - Seite 1 - Kreuzgangbgs-1976_10-12BGS uniform and equipment 1952-1976/80 - Germany: Post

Bundesgrenzschutz Military Wiki Fando

The closure of the border region for nearly 40 years created a haven for wildlife in some places. Although parts of the East German side of the border were farmed, intensive farming of the kind practised elsewhere in Germany was absent and large areas were untouched by agriculture. Conservationists became aware as early as the 1970s that the border had become a refuge for rare species of animals and plants. Their findings led the Bavarian government to begin a programme of buying land along the border to ensure its protection from development. The Inner German border (German: Innerdeutsche Grenze pronounced [ˈɪnɐdɔʏtʃə ˈgʁɛntsə] or Deutsch-deutsche Grenze pronounced [ˈdɔʏtʃˌdɔʏtʃə ˈgʁɛntsə]; initially also Zonengrenze pronounced [ˈtsɔnənˌgʁɛntsə]) was the border between the German Democratic Republic (GDR, East Germany) and the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, West Germany) from 1949 to 1990. Not including the similar and physically separate Berlin Wall, the border was 1,393 kilometres (866 mi) long and ran from the Baltic Sea to Czechoslovakia.

Video: Inner German border - Wikipedi

Military Surplus by Country - German Military - Epic Militari

  1. isterium.Ursprünglich hatte der Bundesgrenzschutz nur den spezialpolizeilichen Auftrag der Grenzsicherung, erhielt dann aber zunehmend schutzpolizeiliche Aufgaben, wurde flächendeckend ausgebaut und erhielt.
  2. Ddr Museum Berlin, Ddr Brd, Berlin Hauptstadt, Socialist State, Warsaw Pact, Central And Eastern Europe, East Germany, Military Photos, Europe. The Bundesgrenzschutz (BGS / Federal Border Guard) was the first national-level armed service established in West Germany after WWII. It utilized a number of WWII items during the Cold War
  3. The scheme was highly controversial in the West. Freikauf was denounced by many as human trafficking, but was defended by others as an "act of pure humanitarianism";[128] the West German government budgeted money for Freikauf under the euphemistic heading of "support of special aid measures of an all-German character."[125]
  4. The actual line between West and East Germany was located on the far side of the outer strip. It was marked by granite stones (Grenzsteine) with the letters "DDR" carved on the west-facing edge. Around 2,600 distinctive East German concrete "barber pole" (Grenzsäule or Grenzpfähle) markers were installed just behind the border line at intervals of about 500 metres (1,600 ft). A metal coat of arms of East Germany (Staatsemblem) was fixed to the side of the marker facing West Germany.[32]
  5. The Bayerische Grenzpolizei (BGP) was a border police force raised by the Bavarian government to carry out policing duties along the inner German border's 390 kilometres (240 mi) in Bavaria. By the late 1960s, the BGP had 600 men patrolling its sector of the border, alongside the BZV, BGS and US Army. Its duties were very similar to those of the BZV, leading to turf wars between the two agencies.[89]
  6. Original German Aramid and Leather Black Pilot Gloves. Original Hensoldt German 8X30 Binoculars. German Leather Parade Gloves - White. German Bundeswehr Shoulder Boards - Officer. German Bundeswehr Shoulder Boards Stabsunteroffizier. German Bundeswehr Infantry Green Collar Tabs. East German Police Border Guard Shoulder Boards
  7. My post for today is a set of East German (DDR), Volkspolizei shoulder boards for the rank of Unterwachtmeister.The interesting thing about these boards is that they are nearly identical to the 1950's Bundesgrenzschutz shoulder boards for the rank of Wachtmeister. The Volkspolizei (VoPo) were the People's Police of East Germany.They were responsible for the general law enforcement for the.

Bundesgrenzschutz Butter Dish Post War German Border BGS Butterdose. Pre-Owned. $15.00. Time left 2d 19h left. 0 bids +$7.00 shipping. Watch. East German DDR m56 helmet with WW2 type liner, stamped II 1961, Pre-Owned. $99.95. Buy It Now +$20.00 shipping. Watch Within the inner security zone, the Schutzstreifen, a further 743 people (15%) were arrested by the guards. 48 people (1%) were stopped – i.e. killed or injured – by landmines and 43 people (0.9%) by SM-70 directional mines on the fence. A further 67 people (1.35%) were intercepted at the fence (shot and/or arrested). A total of 229 people – just 4.6% of attempted escapees, representing less than one in twenty – made it across the fence. Of these, the largest number (129, or 55% of successful escapees) succeeded in making it across the fence in unmined sectors. 89 people (39% of escapees) managed to cross both the minefields and the fence, but just 12 people (6% of the total) succeeded in getting past the SM-70s booby-trap mines on the fences.[130]

Defenders of the West: The Bundesgrenzschutz

  1. The border between East and West Berlin was also significantly tightened, although not fully closed; East Germans were still able to cross into West Berlin, which then became the main route by which East Germans migrated to the West.[31] Between 1949 and the building of the Berlin Wall in 1961, an estimated 3.5 million East Germans – a sixth of the entire population – emigrated to the West, most via Berlin.[31] The railways between East Berlin and other important parts of East Germany went through West Berlin, so an easy way of going to West Berlin was leaving such a train. This railway configuration could not easily be changed, but a new 125 km (78 mi) long railway was built around West Berlin. Following the completion of the Berlin outer ring in 1961, sealing off the East German border with West Berlin became more feasible, and ultimately became a reality in August of that year.
  2. (Bundesgrenzschutz) All content © 2018 - All Rights Reserve
  3. Until the late 1980s, ordinary East Germans were only permitted to travel to the West on "urgent family business", such as the marriage, serious illness or death of a close relative. In February 1986, the regime relaxed the definition of "urgent family business", which prompted a massive increase in the number of East German citizens able to travel to the West.[117] The relaxation of the restrictions was reported to have been motivated by a desire on the part of the East German leadership to reduce their citizens' desire to travel and shrink the number applying to emigrate. In practice, however, it had exactly the opposite effect.[117]
  4. 50 Jahre Bundesgrenzschutz (1951 - 2001) ISBN 978-3-939828-84-6, Taschenbuch, 282 Seiten, 13,50, Verlag Wiljo Heinen. Die im Buch enthaltene Auflistung schwerer Provokationen an der Staatsgrenze der DDR ist ein überzeugender Beweis daftir, dass es Aufgabe des BGS war, die Grenztruppen der DDR immer wieder aufs Neue zu provozieren und sie.
  5. Aviation Photo #1848869 Aerospatiale SA-330J Puma - Bundesgrenzschutz [ Medium Large] Tweet. This photo is copyright protected and may not be used in any way without proper permission. Bundesgrenzschutz Version. Aerospatiale SA-330J Puma Generic Type DDR-TED PZL-Okecie PZL-106BR Kruk. MSN: 09880212.
  6. East Germany - DDR . About / Contact. Links. Home. West Germany - BRD. Bundesgrenzschutz. BGS Hats BGS Hats Bundesgrenzschutz Hats.

What does Bundesgrenzschutz mean? - definition

An observation bunker, known as an Erdbunker, preserved at Observation Post Alpha, which accommodated one or two guards At Zimmerau, in Bavaria, a 38-metre (125 ft) observation tower (the Bayernturm) was constructed in 1966 to give visitors a view across the hills into East Germany.[51] The inhabitants of the East German village of Kella found themselves becoming a tourist attraction for Westerners in the 1970s and 1980s. A viewing point, the "Window on Kella", was established on a nearby hilltop from which tourists could peer across the border with binoculars and telescopes.[52] To the amusement of many, a nudist beach was opened on the Western side in 1975 immediately adjoining the border's terminus near the Baltic Sea port of Travemünde. Visitors often sought to have a nude photograph taken below a looming East German watchtower; the West Germans noted "a lot more movement on that watchtower since the nudist beach opened".[53][54] Polizei beim Deutschen Bundestag. Polizei der Bundesländer. Bundesgrenzschutz (03.1951-07.2005 "Bundesgrenzschutz." Definitions.net. STANDS4 LLC, 2020. Web. 20 May 2020. <https://www.definitions.net/definition/Bundesgrenzschutz>. Nahtloser Übergang von der Grenztruppe der DDR zum Grenzschutz der BRD Sven Hüber war Polit-Offizier im Grenzregiment 33. Hüber´s zweites Leben: Nach dem Mauerfall wechselt der hauptamtliche Parteiarbeiter zum Bundesgrenzschutz, so wie etwa fünftausend DDR-Grenztruppenoffiziere, Volkspolizisten und Stasi-Mitarbeiter

Grenzaufklärer | Walkenrieder Nachrichten

The border also ran along part of the length of three major rivers of central Germany: the Elbe between Lauenburg and Schnackenburg (around 95 km or 59 mi), the Werra and the Saale. The river borders were especially problematic; although the Western Allies and West Germany held that the demarcation line ran along the eastern bank, the East Germans and Soviets insisted that it was located in the middle of the river (the Thalweg principle). In practice, the waterways were shared equally but the navigation channels often strayed across the line. This led to tense confrontations as East or West German vessels sought to assert their right to free passage on the waterways.[74] An East German boundary stone with "DDR" (Deutsche Demokratische Republik) carved on the eastern side The Schießbefehl was, not surprisingly, very controversial in the West and was singled out for criticism by the West Germans. The GDR authorities occasionally suspended the Schießbefehl on occasions when it would have been politically inconvenient to have to explain dead refugees, such as during a visit to the GDR by the French foreign minister in 1985.[145] It was also a problem for many of the East German guards and was the motivating factor behind a number of escapes, when guards facing a crisis of conscience defected because of their unwillingness to shoot fellow citizens.[147] The Grenztruppen were closely watched to ensure that they could not take advantage of their inside knowledge to escape across the border. Patrols, watchtowers and observation posts were always manned by two or three guards at a time. They were not allowed to go out of each other's sight in any circumstances. If a guard attempted to escape, his colleagues were under instructions to shoot him without hesitation or prior warning;[82] 2,500 did escape to the West, 5,500 more were caught and imprisoned for up to five years,[83] and a number were shot and killed or injured in the attempt.

Der alte Bundesgrenzschutz Public Group Faceboo

The inner German border system also extended along the Baltic coast, dubbed the "blue border" or sea border of the GDR. The coastline was partly fortified along the east side mouth of the river Trave opposite the West German port of Travemünde. Watchtowers, walls and fences stood along the marshy shoreline to deter escape attempts and the water was patrolled by high-speed East German boats. The continuous line of the inner German border ended at the peninsula of Priwall, still belonging to Travemünde, but already on the east side of the Trave. From there to Boltenhagen, along some 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) of the eastern shore of the Bay of Mecklenburg, the GDR shoreline was part of the restricted-access "protective strip" or Schutzgebiet. Security controls were imposed on the rest of the coast from Boltenhagen to Altwarp on the Polish border, including the whole of the islands of Poel, Rügen, Hiddensee, and Usedom as well as the peninsulas of Darß and Wustrow.[30] Although Soviet helmet designs were widely adopted in the years following the end of the World War, there is actually a great deal of variety in the types of helmets used throughout the Communist Bloc. Today, it is easy to think of Soviet domination across Eastern Europe, but one must understand that the various nations still maintained their unique national identity in terms of uniforms and. Paul, Manfred, 1932-1. Aufl. - Berlin : Militärverlag der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik, 1981. Description Book — 158 p. : ill. ; 27 cm. Onlin Cold War Military Reenactors/Collectors. 1.2K likes. For collectors/reenactors of the United States and her belligerents from Cold War era (1946-1991) The BGS was established in 1951 after the Cold War had begun but travel between East and West Germany was not yet restricted by the Berlin Wall (1961). When German nationals could move freely from the DDR to the BRD in Berlin, people attempting to cross illegally elsewhere were likely to be either commercial smugglers or espionage agents carrying contraband (e.g. radio transmitters.). Occupation authorities judged this could be better policed by a permanent force of Germans who knew the border woods and mountains intimately (rather than British or US troops who rotated out of Germany after a year or two) and at German rather than Allied expense. The BGS was organized along paramilitary lines in battalions, companies, and platoons, and was armed as light infantry. It remained a police force controlled by the Ministry of Interior rather than by the Ministry of Defense.[1] On 03/10/1953 The Bundespasskontrolldienst (passport control service) was transferred to the BGS and was now deployed on the entire German border.[1]

Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F010413-0001, Lübeck, Jubiläum BGS, Parade (Visible vehicles are Mowag MR 8's)The Bundeszollverwaltung (BZV) was responsible for policing much of the inner German border and manning the West German crossings. Its personnel lived with their families in communities along the border and carried out regular policing tasks in a zone about 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) deep along the border. They had the power to arrest and search suspects in their area of operations with the exception of the section of border in Bavaria.[88] The BZV's remit overlapped significantly with that of the BGS, which led to a degree of feuding between the two agencies.[86] The fall of the inner German border came rapidly and unexpectedly in November 1989, along with the fall of the Berlin Wall. Its integrity had been fatally compromised in May 1989 when the Hungarian government began dismantling its border fence with Austria. The government was still notionally Communist but planned free elections and economic reform as part of a strategy of "rejoining Europe" and reforming its struggling economy.[158] A person attempting to make an illegal crossing of the inner German border around 1980, travelling from east to west, would first come to the "restricted zone" (Sperrzone). This was a 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) wide area running parallel to the border to which access was heavily restricted. Its inhabitants could only enter and leave using special permits, were not permitted to enter other villages within the zone, and were subjected to night time curfews.[43][56][57] It was not fenced off, but access roads were blocked by checkpoints.[58]

Bundesgrenzschutz - The Bundesgrenzschutz and Cold War

In the mid 1960s, a heated barrage of artillery over the inner German border (separating the Soviet and Western occupation zones) delivered neither explosives nor shrapnel, but aerial propaganda leaflets. This was, after all, the cold war, and neither side wanted to risk an incident that could lead to World War III. From Lübeck and Schmidekopf, British Frontier Service operatives deployed to. Bundesgrenzschutz (BGS) Stahlhelm. NOS = New Old Stock. Please note that this steel helmet is not a reproduction! It is an authentic German helmet made in the late 1950's. Its exterior shell shape is virtually identical to a Nazi-period example, but the leather liner uses a suspension system instead of rivets Republikflucht became a crime in 1957, punishable by heavy fines and up to three years' imprisonment. Any act associated with an escape attempt – including helping an escapee – was subject to this legislation. Those caught in the act were often tried for espionage as well and given proportionately harsher sentences.[133] More than 75,000 people – an average of more than seven people a day – were imprisoned for attempting to escape across the border, serving an average of one to two years' imprisonment. Border guards who attempted to escape were treated much more harshly and were on average imprisoned for five years.[134] The vast majority of refugees were motivated by economic concerns and sought to improve their living conditions and opportunities by migrating to the West. Events such as the crushing of the 1953 uprising, the imposition of collectivisation and East Germany's final economic crisis in the late 1980s prompted surges in the number of escape attempts.[129]

Opening the Hungarian border with Austria was essential to this effort. Hungary was at that time a popular tourist destination for East Germans;[159] West Germany had secretly offered a much-needed hard currency loan of DM 500 million ($250 million) in return for allowing citizens of the GDR to freely emigrate.[160] Pictures of the barbed-wire fences being taken down were transmitted into East Germany by West German television stations.[161] This prompted a mass exodus by hundreds of thousands of East Germans, which began in earnest in September 1989. In addition to those crossing the Hungarian border, tens of thousands of East Germans scaled the walls of the West German embassies in Prague, Warsaw and Budapest, where they were regarded as "German citizens" by the federal government, claiming "asylum".[162] A number of West German state organisations were responsible for policing the western side of the border. These included the Bundesgrenzschutz (BGS, Federal Border Protection), the Bayerische Grenzpolizei (Bavarian Border Police) and the Bundeszollverwaltung (Federal Customs Administration).[32] West German Army units were not allowed to approach the border without being accompanied by BGS personnel.[2] Die Zeit unter der Lupe 989/1969 07.01.1969. Welt im Film 212/1949 17.06.1949. Welt im Bild 107/1954 14.07.1954. UFA-Wochenschau 590/1967 14.11.1967. Den Frieden sicherer machen 1971. Deutschlandspiegel 292/1979 1979. Neue Deutsche Wochenschau 24/1950 11.07.1950. Neue Deutsche Wochenschau 618/1961 01.12.1961. Neue Deutsche Wochenschau 333/1956. Bundesgrenzschutz was the first federal police organization in Western Germany after World War II permitted by the Allied occupation authorities. In July 2005, the BGS was renamed Bundespolizei to reflect its transition to a multi-faceted police agency

The introduction of West German Chancellor Willy Brandt's Ostpolitik ("Eastern Policy") at the end of the 1960s reduced tensions between the two German states. It led to a series of treaties and agreements in the early 1970s, most significantly a treaty in which East and West Germany recognised each other's sovereignty and supported each other's applications for UN membership, although East Germans leaving for the West retained the right to claim a West German passport.[36][37] Reunification remained a theoretical objective for West Germany, but in practice that objective was put aside by the West and abandoned entirely by the East.[36][37] New crossing points were established and East German crossing regulations were slightly relaxed, although the fortifications were as rigorously maintained as ever.[38] Gründung des Bundesgrenzschutz BGS 1951 2/3 - Duration: NVA DDR Kommandeur Grenztruppen 1984 Командир Погранвойск ГДР - Duration: 2:07. Alexander Platz 63,719 views The rivers were as heavily guarded as other parts of the border. On the Elbe, East Germany maintained a fleet of about 30 fast patrol boats and West Germany had some 16 customs vessels. The river border was closely watched for escapees, many of whom drowned attempting to cross.[75] Numerous bridges blown up in the closing days of the Second World War remained in ruins, while other surviving bridges were blocked or demolished on the East German side.[76] There were no ferry crossings and river barges were rigorously inspected by the GDR border guards.[77] To prevent escape attempts, the East German river banks were barricaded with a continuous line of metal fences and concrete walls. At one location, Rüterberg on the Elbe, the border fortifications completely surrounded the village and sealed off the inhabitants from the rest of East Germany as well as the West.[78] Bundesgrenzschutz at the Inner German border‎ (3 C, 15 F) P Police patches of the Bundesgrenzschutz‎ (15 F) Police badges of Bundesgrenzschutz‎ (32 F

Bundesgrenzschutz - Pinteres

It was not possible to simply drive through the gap in the fence that existed at crossing points, as the East Germans installed high-impact vehicle barriers and mobile rolling barriers that could (and did) kill drivers that attempted to ram them.[110] Vehicles were subjected to rigorous checks to uncover fugitives. Inspection pits and mirrors allowed the undersides of vehicles to be scrutinised. Probes were used to investigate the chassis and even the fuel tank, where a fugitive might be concealed, and vehicles could be partially dismantled in on-site garages. At Marienborn there was even a mortuary garage where coffins could be checked to confirm that the occupants really were dead.[111] Passengers were checked and often interrogated about their travel plans and reasons for travelling. The system used simple technology and was slow, relying largely on vast card indexes recording travellers' details, but it was effective nonetheless; during the 28 years of operation of the Marienborn complex, no successful escapes were recorded.[112] On the other side of the signal fence lay the heavily guarded "protective strip" (Schutzstreifen), 500 to 1,000 metres (1,600 to 3,300 ft) wide, which adjoined the border itself.[58] It was monitored by guards stationed in concrete, steel and wooden watchtowers constructed at regular intervals along the entire length of the border. Nearly 700 such watchtowers had been built by 1989;[59] each of the larger ones was equipped with a powerful 1,000-watt rotating searchlight (Suchscheinwerfer) and firing ports to enable the guards to open fire without having to go outside.[60] Their entrances were always positioned facing towards the East German side, so that observers in the West could not see guards going in or out. Around 1,000 two-man observation bunkers also stood along the length of the border.[60]

East Germany - Wikipedi

  1. The two sides commemorated their dead in very different ways. Various mostly unofficial memorials were set up on the western side by people seeking to commemorate victims of the border. West Germans such as Michael Gartenschläger and Kurt Lichtenstein were commemorated with signs and memorials, some of which were supported by the government. The death of East German Heinz-Josef Große in 1982 was commemorated annually by demonstrations on the Western side of the border.[155] After the policy of détente was initiated in the 1970s, this became politically inconvenient and state support for border memorials largely ceased.
  2. Those ransomed were valued on a sliding scale, ranging from around 1,875 DM for a manual worker to around 11,250 DM for a doctor. The justification, according to East Germany, was that this was compensation for the money invested by the state in the prisoner's training. For a while, payments were made in kind using goods that were in short supply in East Germany, such as oranges, bananas, coffee and medical drugs. The average prisoner was worth around 4,000 DM worth of goods.[127]
  3. The GDR implemented a variety of security measures along its Baltic coastline to hinder escape attempts. Camping and access to boats was severely limited[30] and 27 watchtowers were built along the Baltic coastline.[70] If a suspected escape attempt was spotted, high-speed patrol boats would be dispatched to intercept the fugitives. Armed patrols equipped with powerful mobile searchlights monitored the beaches.[71]

Bundespolizei (Deutschland) - Wikimedia Common

Bundesgrenzschutz was the first federal police organization in Western Germany after World War II permitted by the Allied occupation authorities. In July 2005, the BGS was renamed Bundespolizei to reflect its transition to a multi-faceted police agency. This was controversial due to the German constitution expressly granting law enforcement power to the states. The fact that the border guard function was so limited allowed its formation notwithstanding this restriction, however in the modern day it has become a fully fledged police force. The BGS was established in 1951 after the Cold War had begun but travel between East and West Germany was not yet restricted by the Berlin Wall. When German nationals could move freely from the DDR to the BRD in Berlin, people attempting to cross illegally elsewhere were likely to be either commercial smugglers or espionage agents carrying contraband. Occupation authorities judged this could be better policed by a permanent force of Germans who knew the border woods and mountains intimately and at German rather than Allied expense. The BGS was organized along paramilitary lines in battalions, companies, and platoons, and was armed as light infantry. It remained a police force controlled by the Ministry of Interior rather than by the Ministry of Defense.Next to the Kolonnenweg was one of the control strips (Kontrollstreifen), a line of bare earth running parallel to the fences along almost the entire length of the border. There were two control strips, both located on the inward-facing sides of the fences. The secondary "K2" strip, 2 metres (6.6 ft) wide, ran alongside the signal fence, while the primary "K6" strip, 6 metres (20 ft) wide, ran along the inside of the fence or wall.[63] In places where the border was vulnerable to escape attempts, the control strip was illuminated at night by high-intensity floodlights (Beleuchtungsanlage), which were also used at points where rivers and streams crossed the border.[61]

Bundesgrenzschutz - WikiMili, The Free Encyclopedi

For many years, the two sides waged a propaganda battle across the border using propaganda signs and canisters of leaflets fired or dropped into each other's territory.[99] West German leaflets sought to undermine the willingness of East German guards to shoot at refugees attempting to cross the border, while East German leaflets promoted the GDR's view of West Germany as a militaristic regime intent on restoring Germany's 1937 borders.[99][100] As the press conference had been broadcast live, within hours, thousands of people gathered at the Berlin Wall demanding that the guards open the gates. The border guards were unable to contact their superiors for instructions and, fearing a stampede, opened the gates. The iconic scenes that followed – people pouring into West Berlin, standing on the Wall and attacking it with pickaxes – were broadcast worldwide.[170] East Germany's communities had a much harder time, because the country was poorer and their government imposed severe restrictions on them. The border region was progressively depopulated through the clearance of numerous villages and the forced relocation of their inhabitants. Border towns suffered draconian building restrictions: inhabitants were forbidden from building new houses and even repairing existing buildings, causing infrastructure to fall into severe decay.[42] The state did little but to provide a 15% income supplement to those living in the Sperrzone and Schutzstreifen; but this did not halt the shrinkage of the border population, as younger people moved elsewhere to find employment and better living conditions.[41]

WWII equipment of the Bundesgrenzschutz - wwiiafterwwi

  1. The inner German border was never entirely sealed in the fashion of the border between the two Koreas and could be crossed in either direction throughout the Cold War.[57] The post-war agreements on the governance of Berlin specified that the Western Allies were to have access to the city via defined air, road, rail and river corridors. This was mostly respected by the Soviets and East Germans, albeit with periodic interruptions and harassment of travellers. Even during the Berlin Blockade of 1948, supplies could be brought in by air – the famous Berlin Airlift. Before and after the blockade, Western civilian and military trains, road traffic and barges routinely passed through East Germany en route to Berlin.
  2. In 1972 the BGS became responsible for the security of the Federal Constitutional Court, the Bundespräsidenten (Federal President), the Bundeskanzler (Federal Chancellor), the Foreign Office and the Federal Ministry of the Interior.[1] On 1 January 1974 the BGS became an all volunteer force and in 1987 started recruiting women.[1]
  3. g to visit the West.[177] The easterners' obsession with bananas was famously spoofed by the West German satirical magazine Titanic on the front cover of its November 1989 edition, which depicted "Easterner Gaby (17), happy to be in West Germany: My first banana". Gaby was shown holding a large peeled cucumber.[178]
  4. German Naval Issue Full Length Lined Overcoat / Raincoat - Good Graded. German Military Navy Blue Deck Jacket, Zip front and Zip pockets. £9.99 - £14.99. Tropentarn German Desert Flecktarn Combat Jacket / Parka Wustentarn, Very Good Graded. German Luftwaffe Tunic Genuine Blue German Airforce Luftwaffe Jacket
  5. Some East Germans tried to escape by jumping overboard from East German ships docked in Baltic harbours. So many East Germans attempted to flee this way in Danish ports that harbourmasters installed extra life-saving equipment on quaysides where East German vessels docked. The GDR's government responded by stationing armed Transportpolizei (Trapos) on passenger ships to deal forcefully with escape attempts. On one occasion in August 1961, the Trapos caused an international incident in the Danish port of Gedser, when they beat up a would-be escapee on the quayside and opened fire, hitting a Danish boat in the harbour. The next day, thousands of Danes turned out to protest against "Vopo (Volkspolizei) methods". The "boat-jumpers" were eventually stopped by further restricting the already limited travel rights of the GDR's population.[73]
  6. Bundesgrenzschutz Die Innerdeutsche Grenze Der Eiserne Vorhang - Duration: DDR NVA Propaganda Video zum 30 Jahrestag der DDR - Duration: 34:31. DDR Archiv 128,814 views

Travelling from west to east through [the inner German border] was like entering a drab and disturbing dream, peopled by all the ogres of totalitarianism, a half-lit world of shabby resentments, where anything could be done to you, I used to feel, without anybody ever hearing of it, and your every step was dogged by watchful eyes and mechanisms.[104] Bundesgrenzschutz (BGS; English: Federal Border Guard) was the first federal police organization in Western Germany after World War II permitted by the Allied occupation authorities. In July 2005, the BGS was renamed Bundespolizei (Federal Police) to reflect its transition to a multi-faceted police agency. This was controversial due to the German constitution expressly granting law enforcement.

Bundesgrenzschutz - The Cold War in Germany: Decoded 194

Overview of intelligence and law-enforcement agencies or DDR), was one of the countries of the former Warsaw Pact. Following the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, East Germany was reunited with West Germany the following year (1990). Bundesgrenzschutz Federal Border Guard of (West) Germany after WWII.. Bundesgrenzschutz (BGS; English: Federal Border Guard) was the first federal police organization in Western Germany after World War II permitted by the Allied occupation authorities. In July 2005, the BGS was renamed Bundespolizei (Federal Police) to reflect its transition to a multi-faceted police agency. This was controversial due to the German constitution expressly granting law enforcement power to the states. The fact that the border guard function was so limited allowed its formation notwithstanding this restriction, however in the modern day it has become a fully fledged police force. The economic impact of the border was harsh. Many towns and villages were severed from their markets and economic hinterlands, which caused areas close to the border to go into an economic and demographic decline. The two German states responded to the problem in different ways. West Germany gave substantial subsidies to communities under the "Aid to border regions" programme, an initiative begun in 1971 to save them from total decline. Infrastructure and businesses along the border benefited from substantial state investment.[41] Before 1952, the inner German border could be crossed at almost any point along its length. The fortification of the border resulted in the severing of 32 railway lines, three autobahns, 31 main roads, eight primary roads, about 60 secondary roads and thousands of lanes and cart tracks.[105] The number of crossing points was reduced to three air corridors, three road corridors, two railway lines and two river connections giving transit access to Berlin, plus a handful of additional crossing points for freight traffic.[106]

Grenzschutz der DDR - Wikipedi

Bundesgrenzschutz Patches, BEVO style Here is the newest addition to the Bundesgrenzschutz collection and set-up for the BGS bicycle. I picked up this group of Bundesgrenzschutz patches off of eBay the other day and they arrived this weekend Original Item: Only a few available. We found a handful of these very interesting helmets in our massive purchase from the Finnish government in 2012. Each helmet was manufactured by Linnemann-Schneztler in West Germany in 1953. However, these examples were probably never used by the Bundesgrenzchutz and instead wound up in the large sale to Finland in 1955. They are unique due to the fact.

Attempts to flee across the border were carefully studied and recorded by the GDR authorities to identify possible weak points. These were addressed by strengthening the fortifications in vulnerable areas. At the end of the 1970s, a study was carried out by the East German army to review attempted "border breaches" (Grenzdurchbrüche). It found that 4,956 people had attempted to escape across the border between 1 December 1974 and 30 November 1979. Of those, 3,984 people (80.4%) were arrested by the Volkspolizei in the Sperrzone, the outer restricted zone. 205 people (4.1%) were caught at the signal fence.[130] Get the best deals on Militaria (1954-1960) New Listing Bundesgrenzschutz Helmet- 2nd Version + Maneuver band West German BGS Stahlhelm. $160.00. 0 bids. $20.00 shipping. (DDR Model 47) WITH SCABBARD. $80.00. FAST 'N FREE. Watch. US ARMY CAVALRY OFFICER's VISOR CAP/HAT. $45.00. 0 bids Whereas East Germany kept its civilians well away from the border, West Germany actively encouraged tourism, and locations where the border was especially intrusive became tourist attractions. One example was the divided village of Mödlareuth in Bavaria. The Associated Press reported in 1976 that "Western tourists by the busload come out to have their pictures taken against the backdrop of the latest Communist walled city [and] the concrete blockhouse and the bunker-slits protruding from the green hillock where a collective's cows were grazing."[35]

BGS Hats - coldwarcollector

Rudi Arnstadt - Wikipedi

Little remains of the inner German border's fortifications. Its route has been declared part of the European Green Belt linking national parks and nature reserves along the course of the old Iron Curtain from the Arctic Circle to the Black Sea. Several museums and memorials along the old border commemorate the division and reunification of Germany and, in some places, preserve elements of the fortifications.[6] Cap of the Bundesgrenzschutz (BGS) Camoflage of the Bundesgrenzschutz (BGS) Field flask of the Bundesgrenzschutz (BGS) Others . Honor guard of the then Federal Border Police for the west german chancellor Willy Brandt in 1967 Stop and search on a motorway: Federal Police is looking for drug smugglin

Historische Fotos – Deutsch-Deutsches Museum Mödlareuth

The work of the guards involved carrying out repair work on the defences, monitoring the zone from watchtowers and bunkers and patrolling the line several times a day. Border Reconnaissance (Grenzaufklärungszug or GAK) soldiers, an elite reconnaissance force, carried out patrols and intelligence-gathering on the western side of the fence. Western visitors to the border were routinely photographed by the GAKs, who also oversaw work detachments maintaining the fence. The workers would be covered by machine guns to discourage them from attempting to escape.[84] Fahrzeuge; Bundesgrenzschutz; Uniformen Bundesgrenzschutz; Ausrüstung Bundesgrenzschutz; Uniformen DDR; Ausrüstung DDR; Uniformen USA; Ausrüstung USA; Funk. After the Wall fell, we were in a state of delirium. We submitted a request for our reserve activities to be ended, which was approved a few days later. We visited Helmstedt and Braunschweig in West Germany, which would have been impossible before. In the NVA even listening to Western radio stations was punishable and there we were on an outing in the West.[174]

A report for the Central Committee's security section noted: "The emigration problem is confronting us with a fundamental problem of the GDR's development. Experience shows that the current repertoire of solutions (improved travel possibilities, expatriation of applicants, etc.) have not brought the desired results, but rather the opposite." The agitation for emigration, the report concluded, "threatens to undermine beliefs in the correctness of the Party's policies."[124] The boundary line was nonetheless still fairly easy to cross. Local inhabitants were able to maintain fields on the other side, or even to live on one side and work on the other. Refugees were able to sneak across or bribe the guards, and the smuggling of goods in both directions was rife.[23] The flow of emigrants remained large despite the increase in East German security measures: 675,000 people fled to West Germany between 1949 and 1952.[24]

Bilder von der DDR Grenze (Bildserie 02)

Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for 3 DIFFERENT EAST GERMAN BUNDESGRENZSCHUTZ SHOULDER BOARDS at the best online prices at eBay! Free delivery for many products! DDR EAST GERMAN ARMY OFFICERS SHOULDER BOARDS EPAULETTES (22-32) £7.90 + £2.20 P&P . EAST GERMAN ARMY SHOULDER BOARDS DDR NVA Uniform Volksarmee Officer. Between 1950 and 1988, around 4 million East Germans migrated to the West; 3.454 million left between 1950 and the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961. After the border was fortified and the Berlin Wall constructed, the number of illegal crossings fell dramatically and continued to fall as the defences were improved over the subsequent decades. However, escapees were never more than a small minority of the total number of emigrants from East Germany. During the 1980s, only about 1% of those who left East Germany did so by escaping across the border. Far more people left the country after being granted official permits, by fleeing through third countries or by being ransomed by the West German government.[38] Sink Argentina's Carrier 1982 - The Secret British Falklands War Mission - Duration: 15:18. Mark Felton Productions Recommended for yo

The new East German leadership initiated "round table" talks with opposition groups, similar to the processes that had led to multi-party elections in Hungary and Poland.[181] When the first free elections were held in East Germany in March 1990, the former SED, which had renamed itself as the Party of Democratic Socialism, was swept from power and replaced by a pro-reunification Alliance for Germany coalition led by the Christian Democratic Union (CDU), Chancellor Kohl's party. Both countries progressed rapidly towards reunification, while international diplomacy paved the way abroad. In July 1990, monetary union was achieved.[182] A Treaty on the establishment of a unified Germany was agreed on in August 1990 and political reunification took place on 3 October 1990.[183] However, West German propaganda leaflets referred to the border as merely "the demarcation line of the Soviet occupation zone", and emphasised the cruelty and injustice of the division of Germany.[49] Signs along the Western side of the frontier declared "Hier ist Deutschland nicht zu Ende – Auch drüben ist Vaterland!" ("Germany does not end here: the Fatherland is over there too!"[50])

West German Luftwaffe Wachbataillon Gefreiter Uniform The Wachbataillon officially known as the Wachbataillon beim Bundesministerium der Verteidigung (WachBtl BMVg) or Guard Battalion of the Ministry of Defense) is the elite drill and ceremonial unit of the German Bundeswehr Until the late 1960s, the fortifications were constructed almost up to the actual border line. When the third-generation fortifications were constructed, the fences were moved back from between 20 metres (66 ft) to as much as 2 kilometres (1.2 mi). This gave the guards a clear field of fire to target escapees without shots landing in the West and provided a buffer zone where engineers could work on maintaining the outward face of the fence in East German territory. Access to the outer strip was very tightly controlled, to ensure that the guards themselves would not be tempted to escape. Although often described by Western sources as a "no-man's land", it was de jure wholly East German territory, and escapees could be arrested or shot.[69] Westerners were prohibited from entering the area and thus could not go to the aid of escapees.

Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F010964-0008, Lübeck, Jubiläum BGS, BMI Schröder (Vehicle in foreground is a DKW-Munga)A metal observation tower manned by three GDR guards. Some watchtowers were semi-portable and could be moved to new sectors when needed. Bundesgrenzschutz bis 2005. 69 likes · 1 talking about this. Local Busines Bundesgrenzschutz (BGS; English: Federal Border Guard) was the first federal police organization in West Germany after World War II.Established on 16 March 1951 as a subordinate agency of the Federal Ministry of the Interior, the BGS was renamed the Bundespolizei (Federal Police) on 1 July 2005 to reflect its transition to a multi-faceted police agency with control over border, railway and air.

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